fair use week 2021

Fair Use/Fair Dealing Week 2021 Day 4 Roundup

This week is Fair Use/Fair Dealing Week, an annual celebration of the important doctrines of fair use and fair dealing. The week is designed to highlight and promote the opportunities presented by fair use and fair dealing, celebrate successful stories, and explain these doctrines.

Check out all the great posts from Day 4 of Fair Use/Fair Dealing Week 2021! Don’t see yours? Email kaylyn@arl.org to get it added! You can view previous roundups here.

Blog Posts/News

Fair Dealing Week 2021: Fair Dealing and Students,” Lachlan MacLeod, Dalhousie University Libraries’ The Libvine blog

Fair Use in the Real World,” Mariah Lewis and Laura Childs, Fordham Library News blog

Fair Use Week 2021,” Donna Stewart, Cleveland State University Michael Schwartz Library

Rebekah Modrak on Teaching Studio Art with Fair Use,” Center for Media and Social Impact Blog

Events

Fair Use Week Gameshow,” University of Illinois Library

Implementing the CARL Copyright OER for University Instructors and Staff on Campus,” webinar hosted by the Canadian Association of Research Libraries

Fair Use Jurisprudence 2019–2021

By Jack Lerner, Luke Hartman, and Jordin Wilcher

Cross-posted at https://ipat.law.uci.edu/fairuse2021

We are excited to celebrate Fair Use Week with a new report from the UC Irvine Intellectual Property, Arts, and Technology (IPAT) Clinic: Fair Use Jurisprudence 2019–2021: A Comprehensive Review. The report presents the results of an exhaustive study of recent fair use opinions issued by US federal courts in copyright infringement cases.

Copyright covers a huge range of expressive activity and is automatic. Just about anyone who wants to do more than read, watch, or use a work relies on the doctrine of fair use in order to avoid liability for copyright infringement. The US Supreme Court has referred to fair use as a sort of safety valve that provides breathing space allowing copyright to coexist with freedom of expression. And it is an evolving doctrine; disputes concerning fair use are constantly working their way through the American legal system, but the vast majority of cases don’t make the news despite their importance to creative expression and innovation.

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MET orchestra performing online during COVID-19 pandemic

The Digital Millennium Copyright Act Promotes Creativity

We started the week sharing the ways that we’re all fair users now, and as #fairuseweek nears its end, we now look to the future. ARL’s Action Plan prioritizes digital rights, which to us means working toward barrier-free access to information. Barriers to internet access can be physical or economic, such as lacking broadband at home when schools and libraries are closed. Bad public policy can be another barrier, and that’s why this year, we are focused on protecting the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA).

Last year, Senator Thom Tillis proposed changes to the DMCA that would threaten its balanced protections. He proposed collapsing the four current safe harbor categories of internet service providers (mere conduit, caching, hosting, linking) into one, and then imposing on old service providers a “notice-and-staydown” (in place of the current notice-and-takedown) regime. Libraries that provide internet access would be required to use filters to prevent users from uploading allegedly infringing content in order to ensure they remain within the safe harbor. These filters would be unable to distinguish between infringing use of copyrighted material and uses that are fair. As Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) associate director of policy and activism Katharine Trendacosta explains in a recent white paper, fair use decisions depend on context. Most applications of fair use do not end up in court. Those that do are determined based on the four factors codified in Section 107 of the Copyright Act; the evaluation is meant to be flexible and responsive to advances like new technology.

When the DMCA was enacted in 1998, the internet was nascent. How could Congress, or any of us, know how invaluable the internet would become? Yet according to legislative history, the Senate at the time imagined the DMCA “would make available via the Internet the movies, music, software, and literary works that are the fruit of American creative genius.” That vision is coming true; presently, creators can reach global audiences with little or no cost due to the open internet in what has been called a “digital renaissance,” an abundance of creative content with unprecedented opportunities to distribute and monetize.

Tillis’s proposed bill could potentially stifle this creativity. In drafting the DMCA, Congress protected fair use; according to a 1998 Senate report, “[t]he Committee [on the Judiciary] determined that no change to section 107 was required because section 107, as written, is technologically neutral, and therefore, the fair use doctrine is fully applicable in the digital world as in the analog world.” However, a notice-and-staydown regime applicable to all internet service providers, including libraries, inevitably would restrict fair use. The copyright clause of the Constitution grants Congress the power to promote the progress of science and useful arts. In a seminal case, Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc. v. Nation Enterprises, the Supreme Court reminded us that “the Framers intended copyright itself to be the engine of free expression.” But the proposed DMCA changes could lead to a reduction in the amount of content created and made available. In our fight to protect digital rights, ARL will continue to work with our collaborators in the Library Copyright Alliance to push back against this bill, and protect balanced copyright law.

Fair Use/Fair Dealing Week 2021 Day 3 Roundup

This week is Fair Use/Fair Dealing Week, an annual celebration of the important doctrines of fair use and fair dealing. The week is designed to highlight and promote the opportunities presented by fair use and fair dealing, celebrate successful stories, and explain these doctrines.

Check out all the great posts from Day 3 of Fair Use/Fair Dealing Week 2021! Don’t see yours? Email kaylyn@arl.org to get it added! You can view previous roundups here.

Blog Posts/News

A Sample of Fair Use,” Sandra Aya Enimil, Copyright at Harvard Library blog

ACRL Books Celebrating Fair Use/Fair Dealing Week,” Erin Nevius, ACRL Insider

Fair Dealing Week 2021,” Kirsten Thompson, Teaching in a Fishbowl blog

Fair Dealing Week 2021: Faculty and Fair Dealing,” Lachlan MacLeod, Dalhousie University Libraries’ The Libvine blog

Fair Use and Dr. Seuss,” Christine E. Weller, Penn Libraries

Open Educational Resources Makers Get a Code of Best Practices in Fair Use,” Center for Media and Social Impact Blog

Quiz: How Much Do You Know about the Fair Use Doctrine?,” University of Colorado Boulder University Libraries

The Heart of Copyright Policy: Fair Dealing, an Indian Perspective,” Akshat Agrawal, Fair Use/Fair Dealing Week website

Virtual Escape Room—Fair Dealing Week Edition,” University of New Brunswick Libraries

You Be the Fair Use Judge Today: Visual Arts,” Center for Media and Social Impact Blog

Events

Copyright 101,” a free live course presented by Columbia University Libraries and LYRASIS in their new pilot Virtual Copyright Education Center

Fair Use in the Time of COVID-19,” webinar hosted by UCLA library

Foundations of OER,” first of three Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) webcasts on open educational resources scheduled through mid-March

Next Steps for Fair Dealing Advocacy,” panel discussion with Brenda Austin-Smith, Eli MacLaren, and Mark McCutcheon, hosted by University of Alberta

The Basics of Copyright,” workshop providing an a overview of copyright legislation, fair use, and licensing, hosted by University of Arkansas University Libraries

Resources

Fair Use,” Bentley University Library Research Guides

Future Thinking: ASERL’s Resource Guide to Controlled Digital Lending for Research Libraries,” Association of Southeastern Research Libraries

A Sample of Fair Use

By Sandra Aya Enimil

Music sampling has been, and is, a critical fixture and feature of hip-hop. Hip-hop is an amalgamation of music, music mixing, dance, graphic art, and a specific clothing aesthetic. Lovers of hip-hop music and copyright have followed and studied the impact of copyright law on the genre, particularly how hip-hop musical artists (MCs) have engaged fair use.

Read the full blog: http://blogs.harvard.edu/copyrightosc/2021/02/24/fair-use-week-2021-day-three-with-guest-expert-sandra-aya-enimil/

photo of person looking through binoculars between two stacks of books

Online Copyright Education Offered by Columbia University Libraries and LYRASIS

In early February, Columbia University Libraries and LYRASIS launched the Virtual Copyright Education Center (VCEC) pilot project. With a stellar faculty drawn from experts in research libraries and museums, “the project will introduce new classes to enable cultural heritage professionals to move beyond a basic understanding of copyright. The project also includes business planning to develop a sustainable service model to enable continued training.”

Even with noticeable growth in the number of scholarly communications positions within the ARL community in the past decade, such positions—advising on issues like open access and copyright—are still less than 2 percent of the professional workforce within ARL. This project will help scale and level up highly specialized knowledge of copyright across research libraries. Librarians work with students and faculty to better understand copyright exemptions like the fair use doctrine that enable their research, teaching, and learning. Librarians will also help prepare campus communities for understanding challenges that might come through the new Copyright Claims Board via the CASE Act.

ARL welcomes this new educational initiative, with its first course, Copyright 101, launching for free during Fair Use Week 2021.

Fair Use/Fair Dealing Week 2021 Day 2 Roundup

This week is Fair Use/Fair Dealing Week, an annual celebration of the important doctrines of fair use and fair dealing. The week is designed to highlight and promote the opportunities presented by fair use and fair dealing, celebrate successful stories, and explain these doctrines.

Check out all the great posts from Day 2 of Fair Use/Fair Dealing Week 2021! Don’t see yours? Email kaylyn@arl.org to get it added! You can view previous roundups here.

Blog Posts/News

Apple v. Corellium: Some Early Takeaways for Software Fair Use,” Brandon Butler, Copyright at Harvard Library blog

Copyright Is Complicated, Your Library Can Help,” Red River College Library

Do Communication Scholars Need Fair Use?,” Aram Sinnreich, Center for Media and Social Impact Blog

Fair Dealing Week 2021: Fair Dealing–Myths and Facts,” Lachlan MacLeod, Dalhousie University Libraries’ The Libvine blog

Fair Dealing Week 2021: What Is Fair Dealing?,” Lachlan MacLeod, Dalhousie University Libraries’ The Libvine blog

Fair Use Best Practices for Open Education Resources Endorsed by ARL,” Cynthia Hudson-Vitale, ARL Views blog

“ ‘Fair Use’ Is Your Best Friend!,” Michael Ladisch, UC Davis Library

Fair Use Week 2021: Resource Roundup,” Authors Alliance

Imagine,” Meera Nair, Fair Duty blog

Events

All about Fair Use,” webinar with Christine Fruin on the fair use statute and how case law from the last 30 years has both confused and clarified its application for libraries, hosted by Atla

Copyright and Fair Dealing: Lessons Learned in COVID-19 Quarantine,” presentation by Carys J. Craig, hosted by University of Alberta

Fair Dealing and Education:  Access Copyright v. York University,” presentation by Pascale Chapdelaine, hosted by University of Alberta

Fair Dealing Week: Copyright and Education, 2021 Update,” panel discussion with Julia Shin Doi, Carol Shepstone, and Ann Ludbrook, hosted by Ryerson University Library

Fair Use in Higher Education: A Conversation with Kyle Courtney,” lecture cosponsored by Longwood University Intellectual Property Committee and Greenwood Library

Fair Use: Using Copyrighted Materials in Research and Teaching,” virtual workshop offered by NYU Libraries’ Scholarly Communications & Information Policy Department

Join Copyright Services for Fair Use Week 2021,” drop-in consultation with Ohio State University Libraries’ Copyright Services

Resources

Copyright and Fair Use: Start Here,” Boise State University Albertsons Library

Copyright Resources to Support Publishing and Teaching: Fair Use,” Penn Libraries

Copyright: The Law and Guidelines: Fair Use,” University at Albany, SUNY, University Libraries

Dalhousie Fair Dealing Guidelines,” Dalhousie University Libraries

Fair Dealing Decision Tool,” Copyright Consortium of the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada

Fair Dealing Flowchart,” University of Waterloo

Fair Dealing Tool,” Red River College Library

Fair Use Week 2021 Resource Roundup,” Authors Alliance

Videos

Fair Dealing Week 2021,” 2:40-minute video, University of Waterloo Library

The Heart of Copyright Policy: Fair Dealing, an Indian Perspective

By Akshat Agrawal, Legal Researcher, Delhi High Court

“Knowledge must be allowed to be disseminated” stated the Indian Supreme Court, in Entertainment Network (India) Ltd. and Ors. v. Super Cassettes. Harping upon the idea of Anglo-Saxan Copyright, justified by the tenets of utilitarianism, the SC clearly emphasized upon the need to balance exclusivity-based incentives as against concerns of access, especially when concerned with knowledge resources. This was nothing new. Long back, prior to the partition of India, when the Imperial Copyright Act of 1914 was in force, during and due to the shackles of colonialism, the Lahore High Court (erstwhile India) harped upon the coloniality of the copyright doctrine, realizing the needs of the Indian citizens to be able to develop indigenous knowledge through access, more than anything else. The Lahore High Court, in 1934, in the judgment of Kartar Singh v. Ladha Singh, very convincingly determined the limits of incentives and the utilitarian purposes of the free market statutory intervention that is copyright, by stating that “Under the guise of Copyright, a Plaintiff cannot ask the court to close all the avenues of research and scholarship, and all frontiers of human knowledge.” What a remarkable decision!

Akshat Agrawal
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logo for Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for OER

Fair Use Best Practices for Open Educational Resources Endorsed by ARL

Iconic news images from the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s can be powerful tools to help students ground events like the murder of George Floyd in their rightful historical context. But uncertainty and anxiety about how, and to what extent, copyrighted materials can be used within open educational resources (OER) has presented challenges to creators of OER. Fair use is a critical component of ensuring high-quality OER are created and used on campuses and in education nationwide. To help OER creators meet their pedagogical goals and support the highest-quality student learning, the American University Washington College of Law released their new Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for Open Educational Resources last week.

Endorsed by the Association of Research Libraries (ARL), “this Code is a tool for educators, librarians, and authors to evaluate common professional scenarios in which fair use can enable them to incorporate inserts, including those protected by copyright, to create OER. It can provide groups working on OER projects with a shared framework for evaluating and understanding when and how to incorporate existing content to meet pedagogical needs.”

Research libraries are key partners with academic faculty in creating and publishing high-quality OER. Many libraries also provide consultations on what falls within fair use for copyrighted materials. According to Toby Graham, university librarian and associate provost at the University of Georgia, “this document clarifies key areas where there is consensus not only on what is OK, but on applications that exemplify why fair use exists in the first place.”